Norwegian weapons

Infantry weapons


Colt pistol m/14

Produced under license at Kongsberg våpenfabrikk. Standard issue to officers. There were also still many Nagant revolvers in use.

cal: 11.25 mm
weight: 1.1 kg
magazine: 7 rounds
muzzle vel: 262 m/s


Krag-Jörgensen gevaer m/1889

The Krag-Jörgensen rifle is best known as the standard rifle of US army. It is however a domestic Norwegian design, and was the standard rifle of the Norwegian army since 1894. It is named after the manager Krag and the "gun maker" Jörgensen.

cal: 6.5 mm
weight: 4.0 kg
magazine: 5 rounds
muzzle vel: 700-745 m/s


Madsen maskingevaer m/14 and m/22 Light machine gun

Danish light machine gun, produced under license by Kongsberg våpenfabrikk. Issued one per infantry squad (lag). They were considered very reliable.

cal: 6.5 mm
weight: 9.0 kg
bullet wgt: ? kg
magazine: 25 and 100 rounds
muzzle vel: 700 m/s
rate of fire: 450 rpm


Hotchkiss mitraljöse m/1898 Heavy machine gun

The Hotchkiss machine gun was the first machine gun of the Norwegian army. They were produced under license by Kongsberg våpenfabrikk. While later replaced by the Colt machine gun, some were still in service in 1940.

cal: 6.5 mm, 8 mm and 10.15 mm
weight: 25.2 kg
muzzle vel: 740 m/s
rate of fire: ca: 500 rpm


Colt mitraljöse m/29 (7.92 mm) Heavy machine gun

Perhaps the most important weapon in the Norwegian army. They played an important role in almost all battles during the war. The infantry battalions had one machine gun company with twelve machine guns. They were also the standard AA weapon in the field army (see anti aircraft artillery). Just before the war they were modified for ammunition with bigger cartridge (more propellant). This was a source of some confusion in the first days, when the old ammunition had a tendency to appear at the wrong places.

 

cal: 7.92 mm
weight: 18.5 kg
bullet wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: 775 m/s
rate of fire: 590 rpm


81 mm bombekastere mortar

Standard equipment, with two per infantry battalion. Saw extensive action on all fronts and were much liked.

License production at Kongsberg våpenfabrikk from original French design.

Field artillery


8.4 cm feltkanon m/1887

The 8.4 cm field gun m/1887 from Krupp were the first breech loaded guns in the Norwegian army. They were since long gone from active service, but were still stored at the fortresses, and a few saw limited action in 1940 (Kongsvinger and Hegra).

Cal: 84 mm
weight: 460 kg
shell wgt: 6.5 kg
max range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: 470 m/s


7.5 cm feltkanon m/01

The 7.5 cm field gun m/01 was the most common gun in the Norwegian artillery. In 1901 the German firm Rheinische Metallwaren & Maschinenfabrik produced 132 pieces of a 7.5 cm field gun (system Erhardt) to a Norwegian order. Many were still in use in 1940. These guns saw a lot of action and was often used in an anti tank role, though no armor piercing ammunition was available. While the gun on the picture is modified for motorized towing. At least twelve were modified in this way during the winter 39/40. Most were still horse drawn though, with spoked wheels (often they were carried on trucks though).

cal: 75 mm
barrel: 31 cal
weight: 1002 kg
shell wgt: 8.25 kg
max range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: 500 m/s
elevation: -7 to +15.5 deg
side: 7 deg


10.5 cm mobil posisjonskanon m/01 & m/04

In 1901 eight 10.5 cm guns (system Schneider-Canet) were bought, and in 1904 18 similar guns (system Cockerill-Nordenfeldt) were bought. They were called "mobil posisjonskanon" (mobile position gun). That indicates a gun with limited mobility compared with the field guns.

In 1937 and 38 some of the guns were modified for motorization in different ways and in 1938 tracked Cletrac tractors were bought.

One motorized battalion of three batteries with four 10.5cm guns each should have been mobilized at Fossumströket fortress in SE Norway, but only two guns were successfully made combat ready (no rubber wheels available!), and these two never got into a firing position.

cal: 105 mm
barrel: 28 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s
elevation: -7 to +20deg
side: 5 deg


12 cm felthaubits m/09, m/15

The Rheinmetal 12cm leFH 08 (system Erhardt) was produced by the German firm in 1908 to a Norwegian order (8 pieces), and entered service in the following year as 12cm felthaubits/m09. Later four similar guns were bought from Bofors and given the designation m/15. They still made up part of the field artillery battalions in 1940, which sometimes included one battery of four 12cm howitzers. One battery of these guns participated in the battle for Østfold in SE Norway. Others were captured by the Germans in Trondheim, and used against the Hegra fortress. It was to be gradually replaced by the 12cm m/32 from Kongsberg våpenfabrikk.

cal: 120 mm
barrel: 15.5 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
effective range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: ? m/s
elevation: -5 to +43 deg
side: 4 deg


12 cm felthaubits/m32

In 1932 the Norwegian arms manufacturer, Kongsberg vaapenfabrikk, designed and produced a modern 12cm field howitzer for gradual replacement of the 12cm m/09. The guns had rubber rimmed steel wheels suitable for tractor towing. 8 guns were produced before the war. One motorized battalion of two batteries, with four guns each, was mobilized at Fossumströket fortress, but they were unable to get any ammunition for the guns before the Germans overran their position, and the guns were evacuated into Sweden.

cal: 120 mm
barrel: 20 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
effective range: 6000 m
(more with improved ammunition)
muzzle vel: ? m/s
elevation: -5 to +45 deg
side: 54 deg

Mountain artillery


6.5 cm bergkanon m/1869/93 & m/1871/97

At the end of the nineteenth century, modern mountain guns were made by putting steel lining with breech loading mechanism on old front loaded cast iron guns from the middle of the century. Some were still issued to local defense troops. In southern Norway there were a few platoons of two guns each in the local defense forces, that were supposed to function as stop-gap anti-tank units. They were used in the operations around Bergen.


7.5 cm bergkanon m/11, m/19, m/24

In 1910 the German firm Erhardt (or Rheinische ?) produced an export model of a 75mm mountain gun. The gun could be carried in six loads. First twelve in 1911 (m/11) and then eighteen more after the war (m/19) were bought. Four guns were later produced under license by Kongsberg (m/24). The gun, later supplemented with the domestic 75 mm bergkanon m/27 from Kongsberg, was standard artillery equipment for the mountain brigades. Organization called for one battalion with two or three batteries of four guns in each of the three mountain brigades. Many of the guns was still in use in 1940 and improved ammunition had been developed. The guns saw a lot of action and was often used in an anti tank role, though no armor piercing ammunition was available. They were made for horse traction but were often carried on trucks. On one occasion an improvised armored train was equipped with such a gun by the Norwegians.

cal: 75 mm
barrel: 17 cal
weight: 600 kg
shell wgt: 6.5 kg
max range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: 350 m/s (or 395 m/s ?)
elevation: -7 to +39 deg
side: 6 deg


7.5 cm berghaubits m/22, m/27

In 1926 the Norwegian arms manufacturer, Kongsberg vaapenfabrikk, produced a 7.5 cm mountain gun to supplement the 7,5 cm bergkanon/m11. It built on a design from Thune. Four were produced and were given the designation m/22. An improved version, 7.5 cm berghaubits m/27, were developed, but only 8 (24 ?) was produced. It could be separated into 6 pieces and carried by pack horses.

m/22
cal: 75 mm
barrel: 18 cal
weight: 600 kg
shell wgt: 6.5 kg
max range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: 350 m/s (or 395 m/s ?)
elevation: -5 to +47 deg
side: 10 deg
m/27
cal: 75 mm
barrel: 20.5 cal
weight: 600 kg
shell wgt: 6.5 kg
max range: 6000 m
muzzle vel: 388 m/s (or 395 m/s ?)
elevation: -5 to +47 deg
side: 10 deg

Anti aircraft artillery


Colt mitraljöse m/29 (7.92 mm) Heavy machine gun

The same machine gun as used by the infantry, but with AA mount, was the only anti aircraft weapons available to the Norwegian army field units. They were also used as complement to the 7.5 cm guns. They were organized in platoons of three machine guns. They did not prove very effective against modern aircrafts.

cal: 7.92 mm
weight: 18.5 kg
bullet wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: 775 m/s
rate of fire: 590 rpm


40mm maskinkanon m/36

In the pre war planning of the Norwegian forces, it was decided that the light anti-aircraft defense should use the Bofors 40mm AA-gun. A license production was initiated at Kongsberg, but there were technical problems and the production was seriously delayed. A few guns were bought directly from Bofors to meet the most pressing needs. One battery of four guns was placed in Narvik, four guns in two batteries were protecting coastal artillery forts in Oslofjord, and ten guns were bought by the company Norsk Hydro for protecting two of their most important plant (one was the power plant in Rjukan, famous for the heavy water). No guns from Kongsberg were finished before the war.

cal: 40 mm
barrel: 60 cal
weight: 1730 kg
shell wgt: 0.9 kg
max ceiling: 4600 m
muzzle vel: 900 m/s
rate of fire: 120 rpm



7.6 cm luftvernkanon L/28 anti aircraft gun

14 old anti aircraft guns from Bofors were still in service in 1940. They were used in static emplacements.

cal: 76 mm
barrel: 28 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: 5-6000 m
muzzle vel: 500 m/s


7.5 cm luftvernkanon m/16 anti aircraft gun

In 1916 it was decided to start a domestic production of "anti balloon guns". The first gun was finished in 1920. Twelve were produced in all. The main anti aircraft protection of cities and installations in Norway was carried out by 7.5 or 7.6 cm guns in static emplacements. Most were older designs bought from abroad.

cal: 75 mm
barrel: 45 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: 8000 m
muzzle vel: 750 m/s


7.5 cm luftvernkanon/m32 anti aircraft gun

In 1932 a 75mm antiaircraft gun from Kongsberg vaapenfabrikk were introduced in the Norwegian army. It was designed by kaptein S Selmer and kaptein M R Hagem, and was an unusual design in having a platform with three outriggers instead of the usual four. It was used in conjunction with an older 75mm antiaircraft gun in the organization. Its main use was for positional air defense of important cities and installations.

cal: 75 mm
barrel: 45 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


Sighting equipment

Gamma centralsikte

The sighting equipment available to the Norwegian anti aircraft artillery were often very old an inadequate. The more modern equipment available was the electro mechanical Gamma sight of Hungarian design, and a "help sight" called m/35 B, of domestic design. These were supplemented by optical range- and altitude meters.

At this picture from a battery outside Oslo, a central instrument can be seen to the left of the men in the middle (behind the little hill), while an optical rangefinder and a Colt machine gun can be seen to their right.

Görz listening device

Hartree two-station altitude meter

Fortress artillery


7.5 cm tornkanon

Ordered from Belgium before the first world war, they were delivered in 1920. The guns were placed in armored turrets. There were two guns in each Trögstad and Höytorp fort (Fossumströket fortress).

cal: 75 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


10.5 cm festningskanon

These fortress guns on pivots and with gun shields, were the main armament of Ravnebergets battery outside Sarpsborg, and at Ingstadkleiva fort (Hegra fortress) outside Trondheim. At Ravneberget the guns could shift firing positions using rail tracks. The picture is from Ravneberget.

cal: 105 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


12 cm tornkanon

These guns were ordered from the French manufacturer Schneider-Canet in 1901. They were placed in armored turrets and were the main artillery of the land fortresses guarding the Glåma defense line.

cal: 120 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ca: 6000 m
muzzle vel: ? m/s

Coastal artillery


5.7 and 6.5 cm guns

Some of the coastal fortresses had a few batteries of small caliber guns for protection of planned minefields and for use against small and fast boats.


12 cm kanon

Older 12 cm guns of different kinds, taken from decommissioned ships, were used in some secondary batteries. Used as flanking batteries for minefields for instance.


15 cm kanon m/??

Bought from Armstrong at the big buildup of the Norwegian coastal fortresses, which began in 1893.


15 cm kanon m/19

 

13 were ordered from Bofors during World War One, but not delivered until some time after the war. The plans for new forts were however put on ice and the guns were held in storage until the tension in the world began to rise again in the 30'ies. The picture is taken while they were stored. Seven were used in the forts in outer Oslofjord, the rest were still unused in 1940.

cal: 150 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


21 cm kanon m/??

The 21 cm guns were the most common heavy artillery pieces in the Norwegian coastal artillery. Most were bought from Armstrong and St Chamond after 1893 when the big buildup of the Norwegian coastal fortresses began.

The picture is taken from one of the forts overlooking Bergen harbour (St Chamond gun).

cal: 210 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: 16 000 m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


24 cm haubits m/??

The 24 cm coastal artillery howitzer were part of the Norwegian coastal fortresses at Bergen and Kristiansand. They were bought from St Chamond sometime after 1893.

The picture is taken from one of the forts overlooking Bergen harbour, after the German takeover.

cal: 240 mm
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


28 cm kanon m/??

Three 28 cm guns from Krupp, bought in 1892, was the main battery of Oscarsborg fortress. Only two of the guns participated in the sinking of Blücher in the morning of the 9th of April.

cal: 280 mm
weight: 75 000 kg
shell wgt: 345 kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


30.5 cm haubits m/??

Two modern 30.5 cm howitzers from Bofors was the heaviest pieces in the Norwegian coastal artillery. They were situated at Måkeröy fort in Oslofjord and were emplaced in gun pits. They did never open fire during the invasion for a number of reasons.

cal: 305 mm
barrel: 30 cal
weight: ? kg
shell wgt: ? kg
max range: ? m
muzzle vel: ? m/s


7.5 cm railroad gun

A 7.5 cm fortress gun mounted on a flatcar was since WW1 part of the coastal defense of Narvik. The picture above is probably of this gun. It is said to have had a simple armor protection. I did not manage to get in position to fire at the German destroyers on 9.April, but was taken by the Germans and used against Norwegian troops along the railroad toward the Swedish border on 16.April.


Torpedo batteries

Oscarsborg outside Oslo, and Bergen each had a static torpedo battery. The one at Bergen was unmanned at the 9th of April, but the one at Oscarsborg was responsible for sinking the heavy cruiser Blücher. The batteries had three tubes for 45cm torpedoes each.

The 45cm torpedoes were of Norwegian design and manufacture.



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