Great Britain

Auchinleck, C. J. E: Lieut.-General and from 5th of May commander of the allied ground and air forces in the Narvik area, replacing Major-General Mackesy.

Carton de Viart, Sir Adrian: Major-General and commander of "Maurice force", i.e. the French and British troops landing north of Trondheim at Namsos, with the task to attack Trondheim from north.

Chamberlain, Neville (1869-1940): British Prime Minister from  May 1937 to the 10th of May 1940, when he resigned, surrendering the premiership to Winston Churchill. The immediate reason for his resignation was the failure of the Norwegian operation. It is ironic that it was Churchill who was the main architect of the Scandinavian strategy. Broken by failures and humiliation he died in November 1940.
Picture: Chamberlain with the document from the peace conference in München, at the famous "Peace in our time"-speech.

Churchill, Winston Spencer (1874-1965): British naval minister (First Lord of the Admiralty) at the beginning of the war. Succeeding Chamberlain as Prime Minister at the 10th of May 1940 and forming a coalition government. He had been a prime proponent of a more aggressive stance toward Germany, and put forward Scandinavia as a good area to open up a front against Germany. 

Cork, Lord: Admiral and commander in chief of the allied forces in the Narvik area.

Halifax, Earl of (Edward Wood) (1881-1959): British foreign secretary from 1938 to 1940 in Chamberlains government. A possible successor of Chamberlain in May 1940, but Churchill was preferred as he was an elected member of the House of Commons, which Lord Halifax was not. Lord Halifax was a supporter of Chamberlains policy of appeasement.

Mackesy, P. J.: Major-General and commander of the allied ground forces in the Narvik area, but subordinate to the Admiral Cork.

Massy, H. R. S: Lieut-General and from 22nd April commander of all allied forces in Norway.

Paget, B. C. T.: Major-General and from 22nd April commander of "Sickle force", i.e. the British troops landed south of Trondheim, in the Åndalsnes area with the task to prevent the Germans in southern Norway from reinforcing the German forces in Trondheim.


Daladier, Edouard (1884-1970): Head of the French government until March 1940.

Reynaud, Paul (1878-1966): Head of the French government from March 1940.



Bräuer, Curt: German minister stationed in Oslo. He presented German ultimatum first to the Norwegian foreign minister on the 9th of April and then to the King on the 10th of April.

Dietl, Eduard; Generalmajor and commander of 3.Geb.Div (3rd Mountain division). He participated in the Narvik invasion force. Promoted to Generalleutnant after the occupation of Narvik.  

Engelbrecht, Erwin (1891-?): Generalmajor and commander of I.D.163 in 1940.

Falkenhorst, Nikolaus von (1885-1968): Generaloberst and commander of A.G. XXI. Given the command of the planned invasion of Norway in February 1940. Staying as supreme military commander of Norway (and German forces in northern Finland) until the end of the war.

Feurstein: Generalleutnant and commander of 2.Geb.Div (2nd Mountain division)

Geisler, Hans Ferdinand: Generalleutnant and commander of X Fliegercorps. 48 years old.

Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945): Well, you probably know as much about him as I do. As far as I can see, he doesn't seem to have had much direct influence on the preparations for the invasion of Norway, other than taking the major decisions, and selecting the commander of the operation. The idea to invade Norway came from the Kriegsmarine (Navy) which persuaded Hitler that this was an important operation. Hitler doesn't seem to have made any important changes to the plans either (corrections are welcome!).

Horn: Generalmajor and commander of 214.Inf.Div.

Jodl, Alfred (1890-1946): Brigadier and Chief of the Operations staff of OKW, i e head of the army. Found gulty of war crimes at the Nürnberg trials and hanged in 1946.

Pellengahr: Generalmajor and commander of 196.Inf.Div. Responsible for the main line of advance toward Trondheim, through the Gudbrandsdal. Former artillery officer, he made very efficient use of the artillery in the advance up the valley.

Raeder, Erich (1876-1960): Grossadmiral of the German fleet. Commander in chief of the Navy as well as chief of the naval staff (OKM). Raeder was a prime proponent of a German invasion of Norway.

Spiller, Eberhard: Captain and German Air attaché in Oslo. Took command over a company of Fallschirmjegers on 9.April and launched the famous "Spillers raid". A hunt through over 100 km of Norwegian held territory for the Norwegian King and government. He was mortally wounded in the battle of Midtskogen, on the night between 9th and 10th of April.

Terboven, Josef (1898-1945): Gauleiter and from 24.April Reichskommisar in Norway, with full authority over the administration of the occupied parts of Norway. He stayed at that post through the war and became known as very ruthless. At the German surrender he took his life, before he could be captured.

Tittel: Generalmajor and commander of 69.Inf.Div.

Woytasch: Generalmajor and commander of 181.Inf.Div.


Hagelin, Albert V.: Businessman working in Berlin, and a member of Nasjonal Samling (Quislings party).

Hambro, Carl J.: President of "Stortinget" (the General Assembly). Member of the conservative party (Høyre).

Hatledal, Rasmus: Oberst (Colonel) and chief of General Staff.

Kung och prins.JPG (15264 byte)Håkon, VII (1872-1957): King of Norway since 1906. Håkon was a Danish prince and was selected to become King of Norway when the union with Sweden was terminated in 1905. His political power was very limited but he was very popular. His opposition to the German conditions helped to rally the Norwegian Government in the first days of the invasion.

Koht, Halvdan: Foreign minister since 1935. Member of Arbeiderpartiet (Workers party), pacifist and strong proponent of neutrality.

Laake, Kristian: Commanding General of the Army. Old and not very dynamic he was replaced by Otto Ruge on the 11th of April 1940.

Ljungberg, Birger: Defense minister and oberst (colonel) in the army. He had been defense minister for three months in April 1940. Has got a great 

Nygaardsvold, Johan: Prime minister since 1935. Member of Arbeiderpartiet (Workers party).

Quisling, Vidkun (1887-1945): Founder and since 1933 leader of the Norwegian Fascist National Union Party (Nasjonal Samling). The party had close ties with the German National Socialist Party. He had a meeting with Hitler in December 1939, where he more or less urged the Germans to invade Norway, to stop the British influence. Hitler got the impression that the Norwegian Fascists were a force to be reckoned with, and stated that Quisling should be head of the Norwegian government after the German invasion. In the negotiations between the Norwegian government and the German minister Bräuer during the 9th and 10th April, a German requirement was that Quisling should be prime minister of the Norwegian government. After the fall of Oslo he held a radio broadcast, stating that he now was the head of the Norwegian government, and that the mobilization was stopped. While not taken seriously by most Norwegians, the speech nevertheless added significantly to the general confusion. On the 1st of February 1942 he became minister president of Norway. After the war he was condemned for high treason and executed.

Ruge, Otto (1882-1961): Oberst (Colonel). Raised to Commanding General of the Army on the 11th of April 1940. Otto Ruge was generally appreciated as a very able officer. His career had however been damaged by his refusal to accept the cutbacks in the 1933 defense plans. His effort to consolidate the Norwegian forces and his energy is generally praised. I have however seen at least one article criticizing his general strategy. See article by David Thompson on this site.

Sundlo: Oberst (Colonel) and commander in Narvik. Member of Quislings party, "Nasjonal Samling". He was accused of surrendering Narvik willingly to the Germans but it has not been possible to prove. He acted feebly when the Germans landed, but he was not the only one to do that on that day.

Wold, Terje: Minister of justice.